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Funiushan Geopark

Mt. Funiushan Global Geopark lies in the eastern China Central Orogenic System, the hinterland of Funiu Mountain Range of Henan Province. It is a comprehensive geopark, which is the continental orogenic belt type, consisting of National Geopark, World Biosphere Reserve, National Nature Reserve, National-Level Nature Reserve for Dinosaur Egg Fossils Group and National Mine Park. The total planning area is 1340.93km2.The area of geotourism and ecotourism is 683.95km2, and the area of geosciences study is 656.98km2.The attached Nature Reserve area is 1296.54km2 and the geological route is 208.348km long. The geographical coordinate is: 111°59′48″~112°36′51″E., 33°01′44″~33°49′16″N.

The characteristic of the earth history and the tectonic geology in Mt. Funiushan area reveals the Archean break-up and separation of primary base of continental crust. During the early Proterozoic sedimentary formation and metamorphose, it summarizes the respondence of China Central Orogenic Belts to the global Rodinia Event, and the earth tectonic evolution and the continental dynamics process controlled by the tectonic dynamics system of the regional plates. The fossils of Dinosaur eggs have 8 families, 12 genera, 36 species in Nature Reserve for the Cretaceous Dinosaur Egg Fossils Group affiliated to the Geopark. The Longiteresoolithusxixiaensis and the Prismatoolithusgebiensis found here are rare and unique in the world. They are honored the "Ninth Miracle of the World" following the "Terracotta Warriors and Horses" in Shaanxi Province, China.

The geomorphic landscapes in the Mt.Funiushan Geopark show closely relationship with the tectonic movement. Especially, these geomorphic landscapes display the diversity of granitic geomorphic types in orogenic belts, such as the toothed mountain of the granite in the primary tectonic period, the laccolithic mountain of the granite in the extension period, the "Wuxingshan" landscapes of the subduction granites under the plates mechanism, the unloading and break-up of the collisional granites, the stone pillars and peak clusters of the crust-mantle mixed granites. Tectonic Karst, the ductile deformation landscapes, formed on the base of the carbonate tectonic rock slices and the mylonitized marbles in the fracture belts. It shows the orogenic characteristics of Karst geomorphic landscapes and the heterogeneity. Some hydrological landscapes stand for the rhythm of new tectonic movement and the inherit features of fluvial geomorphology, such as the converging of the antecedent river with the subsquent river, the association of riverhead lake with the peneplain and the adjacency of waterfall groups with the potholes.

The main peak altitude of Mt. Funiushan is 2212.5 meters and this makes it become a natural barrier of stopping the tropic moisture air mass from the Pacific Ocean toward west in summer as well as the cold snap of Siberian to south in winter. Moreover, it is a boundary of the subtropical climate in the east of China. In this area, the ecosystem is preserved well and the biodiversity is typical. So Baotianman Scenic Area has become one of the "World Biosphere Reserves" authoritized by the UNESCO.