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Jingpohu Geopark

The jingpo lake world geopark is localted in the upper-middle reaches of the Mudanjiang River,Northeast China’s Heilongjiang Province. It is 110 kilometers from Mudanjiang City.The park covers an area of 1’400 sqauare kilometers.

The geopark not only boasts typicall and complete vocaic terrain beautiful rivers lakes canyons and wetlands,but also features ruins of the ancient.Bohai Kingdom.

Jingpo lake covers an area of 79 square kilometers whit a total water volume of 1.62 billion cubic meters. It is the largest lava barrier lake in China, and the second largest in the world. In the late Gretaceous Period 6.5 million years ago, a fault-lock basin structure with covers today’s Mout Zhangguancai and Mount Laoyeling had already fomed. This costitutes the lake floor of meta-rocks and lava of jingbo Lake today. About 1 million years ago, Lava as a result of volcanic eruption blocked the river bed of the Mudanjiang River forming a lava dam. As a result, the inciplent Jingpo Lake began to take shape. In the late Glacial Period,larger volcanic eruptions helped build a more voluminous lava dam. Hence the Jingpo Lake as we see it today. Today more than 30 rivers empty into the lake which looks like a convergence center. The period of time for various strata and rocks along the lake bank to take from convers 680 million years. Theese rocks and stones include sandy stones sandy rocks granite and so on. All of these are of great teaching and research value.

The granite rocks after experiencing various earth moverments are in the shape of cliffs which are carver by geological and meteorological activities such as water erosion and weathering into various unique shapes with different textures. All this combines to present three-dimensional vivid and beautiful scenes which are called a “geological corridor” by visitors. Aulture also accumulates around th elake. Beautiful legends and folklore abound in the area. Also there are still many historical relice and ruins of the Tang, Song and Qing dynasties in the lake area.

Historical figures emerged from the lake area, Numerous men of letters have been attracted to the lake area by the natural beauty composing many poetic pieces to sing odes to the lake.

The Diaoshuilou Waterfall is one of the six major waterfalls in China. It’s not only the country’s widest and the nethermost waterfalls but also China’s only large collapsed-lava waterfall which is also rarely seen in the world. In the water-abundance period of the year, it creates thunderous sound and presents white-foamy waves. The waterfall lends much energy and vitality to the Jingpo World Geopark.

The Diaoshuilou Waterfall was formed in the late Glacial Period as a result of the rise and fall of the Mudanjiang River bed driven by new earth movements. Geological erosion also played a role. Here is also the place where the Mudanjiang River bed changes from lava terrace adge into granite. Whit the continuous rise of the river bad the head drop and water crashing power increased cutting the granite below cutting the granite below. As a result, the pool below the waterfall became deeper and deeper. All this combines to make the majestic scenry. In low-watwer season, the wall of the Heilong Pool below the waterfall is ciearly seen. The tree-bough shaped basalt rocks go along the pool wall like a screen. Visitors’ cry “bravo” as they appreciate the divers diving down the cliffs into the pool are reflected by the circular pool wall, which creates successive echoing.this is the so-called “Aquatic Sound Echoing Wall”. In the winter the waterfall is frozen, the icicle hanging all the way down the cliff cryatal and transparent. Sometimes mist arises helping make the scene all the more beautiful and majestic. The “jingpo Canyon” is downstream of the waterfall the canyon is located in the Mudanjiang River fault belt. Granite makes up the main body of the mountains, cliffs tower in the sky with sharply defined contours. Here is various-shaped “whale-back” rocks on which are clusters of rock mortars and clearly defined quartz belts. Downstream of the canyon are quartz cliffs on the one shore and granite cliffs on the other. One while enjoying the excitement brought by drifting in the rapids can enjoy this geological wonder. One may wax poetic, The waterfall plunges down the beautiful mountains and people drift down the river amidst majestic cliffs.

A lava-rock belt that stretch thousands of kilometers took form about 100 million years ago, as a result of the interaction between the Eurasia Plate and the Pacific Plate, jingpo volcano groups are located in the Dunmi Shell Fault Belt which is in turn in the eastern periphery of the Eurasia Plate. The Jingpo volcanic group was formed as a result of repeated volcanic eruptions between 12,000 years and 5,140 years ago in the Quaternary Period. At the time,lava erupted form the volcanic craters and flowed down the slopes which were at the angle of between 25 and 30 degrees to the ground to the valleys 650 meters above sea level. Then it continued its flow at the angle of 1/1,000 degree to the plain forming a 65 kilometer-long lava belt covering 174 square kilometers. It’s one of the world’s longest relatively recent lava belts. The lava filled various ravines helping form lava tunnels,lava porous caves lava terraces and other volcanic-activity-related natural topography. This provides us with an ideal venue to appreciate the voicano-made-natural wonders. After the volcanic eruptions stopped, lava began to contract which made the iner side of the craters collapse. The basin-like,well-like and pan-like craters were thus formed. All the 16 craters that have already been studied are distributed along the fault belt. The “Xiongshi Caye” is representative of the volcanic lava caves. Its situated on top of the western side of Crater No.3. layer upon layer of lava are atop the east side of the cave mouth 140 layers in all. The cave tilte form east to west and stretches to Crater No.4. lava tunnels are concentrated in the lake area with a total length of 23 kilometers, second only to the 27-kilometer-long lava tunnel in Hawaii. Althought the tunnel is blocked in some sections by rock collapses, the micro-volcanic geologic topography is still seen clearly in the well-preseryed sections. This is of great geological aesthetic and research value. Forests have grown up around, the craters No.1 to No.4,thanks to the lava erupting form the craters which is in various shapes such eggs,cakes and tiny rocks. Over the past millions of years, lava has broken up and been transformed into soil thanks to wearthering. Tree have sprung up from the crater bottoms and rock clefts. Nature has greened the outside and inside of the craters. Woods cover Ninety per cent of the crater area of some 67,000 hectares. The average age of the trees is 300 years with the oldest being 600 years old. The long-stretching prinitive forest is called the “underground forest”. The fallen old trees that litter the forest floor and the fallen leaves turn into fertile soil which in turn will nourish the living trees setting in motion a never-ending cycle of life and growth.

As the only State-level relics protection site in Heilongjiang Province and one of the 100 major archeological finds in the 20th-century China the ruins the Longquan Prefecture of the Bohai Kingdom are the cultural wonders in the Jingpo World Geopark. Thr Bohai Kingdom, a fribute fiedom of the Tang Dynasty lasted for more than 300 years during which 15 kings reigned. The mystery of its rise and fall is strongly attracting scholars and researchers at home and abroad like the magnet attracting iron. Everything in the ruins, such as stone light towers stone Buddha figures stone turtles and stone lions all of which are Tang period Buddhist stone –carving art pieces reflects the ancient artistic grace. In addition, there are basalt city walls and foundations. The lava terrace, the nature’s heritage also serves local residents in a practical way. On iy the locals raise cattle and sheep. The rice grown on the lava-turned aoil is noted for its good taste and nutrition. Its of high economic and research value. Thanks to people’s cares and the suitable climate the park is covered with vegetation. The vegetation ratio reaches 90 per cent. The forests are temperate-zone broad-leave mixed forests with the Korean pine forest Korean-pine and broad-leave mixed forest and deciduous mixed forest being the most typical. The park is a great store of botanical species 150 in all. Good vegetation provides wild life with good living space. There are more than 50 animal species 500 minds of birds and more than 20 species of fish shrimps and crabs in the park. The best known is the rainbow trout. The volcano-related geological remains aquatic geological remains and granite geological remains have rich content and are typical of such kinds of geological remains. They are rarely seen in other parts of the country or world. The eco-system of vocanoes is complete and harmonious. Each volcanic geological remain is a closed system having its own unique micro landscapes. Upon all this, the geological evolution history can be deduced. So the park really lives up to the name of “volcano-related geological remaind museum”, its an ideal venue for geologists from home and abroad and also geology fans to conduct research into volcanic geology. The park possesses high teaching research and aesthetic value we marvel, Mountains and valleys are beautiful scars of the earth. Lakes and rivers are arteries of the earth. We know well, Geological remains are the window nature gives to the human race through which we can understand what geology is. We will, as ever try to make the park live up to its reputation, the Jingpo Lake World Geopark.

We will try to protect this unredeemable heritage endowed to us by nature, preserving the rare geological wonders in the park and trying to will maintain its completeness. Also we will try to mak the unique combination of cultural and natural beauty all the more perfect, making them all the more valuable in terms of teaching research aesthetics history and culture. We will make more reasonable use of the park’s rich geological resources and therefore do our bit in helping promote the local economy’s sustainable development.
 

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